Wahhabi Colonialism and Tools of Empire

work in progress

The decline of the British Empire since World War Two and the rise of al Qaeda and Daesh are inextricably linked. The 1947 loss of the British Raj in India may have been anticipated but losing control of the Suez canal in 1957 to Egypt's Arab nationalists was a body blow the Empire couldn’t recover from.

Independence movements were on the rise everywhere, and Her Majesty’s armed forces did fight back:

1948-60 Malaysia - A clandestine War against rebel nationalists, using defoliant sprays, allying ourselves to headhunters (terrorism) and forcing local populations into concentration camps.

1952 - Egypt

1952-60 Uganda - Britain interned Kenyan nationalists and rebels in prison camps where torture was inflicted.

1953 Iran - A British and US sponsored coup installed a hereditary monarch over a democratically elected government.

1957 Suez - Britain and France lose control of the Suez canal to Egyptian nationalists

1963-67 Yemen -  Britain fights (and loses) a vicious counter insurgency battle on the tip of the Arabian penninsular. The British Protectorate of Aden was ceeded in 1967.

1963-76 - Oman

But they were rear guard actions. The French had given up Vietnam in 1954 and Algeria in 1962. The days of the colonial Empire’s dominence were over and there was a realignment of the world order. The United States was the main beneficiary and access to oil supplies.

 then we entered the Cold War

, but a plan ‘B’ was already in the making:

from 1957Saudi's Wahhabi colonialism - spreading the Salafi doctrine followed by #alQaeda & #Daesh through charitable works

Est.1962 with the formation of the Muslim World League

1978: the MWL formed the International Islamic Relief Organization, controlled by OBL's brother-in-Law

Declines and Rises of Empires

1744 - The First Saudi State
An alliance sealed with sacred oaths and marraiges between Arabian tribal leaders Mohammad bin Saud and Mohammed al Wahhab led to the creation of the Emirate of Diriyah, also known as the first Saudi state, in central Arabia. In exchange for al Wahhab’s military support bin Saud made Wahhab's interpretation of the Koran the state’s guiding doctrine. Wahhabism was established in Arabia.

1801 to 1818 - The Wahhabi War
Saudi Wahhabi expansion to Mecca and Medina, and their cross border raiding in to neighbouring territories prompted a ten year military campaign against them by an 
Egyptian army loyal to the Ottoman Empire. Some tactics and objectives of the Wahhabi army mirror those of Daesh today; in 1802 they raided Karbala in Iraq for example. They attacked Shia mosques there, destroyed the tomb of the Prophet Mohammed's grandson and carried out a sectarian massacre - slitting the throats of all captured adult males. In 1818 Saudi ruler Abdullah bin Saud along with two of his Wahhabi supporters were captured when Riyadh was overrun. The Ottoman publicly executed these three in Istanbul as a reprisal for the Wahhabi's bloody sectarian tactics whilst showing leniency towards other less XXXXX participants.

1819 - The British Persian Gulf Campaign

 destruction of ’s tomb in Karbala in 1802, for attacks on Shia mosques, and for the massacres of civilians during their military campaigns.

Following a final defeat in Riyadh the Saudi Wahhabi forces were forced in to exile in. The Ottomans captured and executed  

he end of the first Saudi state came with defeat by 

1902 Ikhwan

1915 The lands of the House of Saud became a British Protectorate with the signing of the Treaty of Darin by Ibn Saud whose ambitions Britain had been supporting since 1902. It also guaranteed the independent sovereignty of Aden, Oman, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar and the Trucial States (mordern day UAE) - all of which were also under British control or significant influence.

1927 Britain officially recognizes Saudi dominions in Arabia as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In turn Ibn Saud was backed by a ideological Wahhabi force who were known as Ikhwan, or Bretheren. The Ikhwan first appeared around 1902 and were zealous religious warriors united and motivated by idealism more than allegiance to Ibn Saud. 

1928 The Ikhwan go in to open revolt against Ibn Saud’s modernisation and encroaching western influence. They begin raiding villages in neighbouring Iraq, Kuwait and Trans-Jordan. Ibn Saudi respond with a force 30,000 equipped with 200-military vehicles supplied by Britain along with four aircraft flown by British pilots.

1929 The force of 10,000 Ikhwan riding camels is routed by Ibn Saud’s modern forces at the Battle of Sabilla. The remnants of the irregular Ikhwanis joined Ibn Saud forces, forming new military units initially known as the White Army before being renamed the Saudi Arabian National Guard.

1932 The Third State of Saudi Arabia is declared a kingdomestablished upon their unification and conquests of much of Arabia, ending its status as a British Protectorate.

1933 The Arabian-American Oil Company ARAMCO is formed, marking a significant decline in British interests and influences as America rises.

1934 A Saudi provoked conflict with Yemen results in the provinces of  Ikwhan forces invade and occupy three Yemeni provinces. Maps and  reports of the area made by a British Colonial officer in 1932 but were not published until 1952, prior to which the area remained uncharted territory on world maps. 

1937  Aden became a fully-fledged British Crown Colony when the Colonial Office in London assumed responsibility for the outpost from the British India office. This was due largely to the latter’s preoccupation with the success of the nationalist Indian National Congress party in proincial elections.

1938 HSA

1950s and 60s Arab nationalism

1962 Saudi Prince Fisal created the Muslim World League (MWL), much like a missionary organisation but prothlotising their particular Wahhabi ideology to the Muslim diaspora through good works.  And much like British Empire missionary work there was an element of colonialism behind it. It’s speculated that the MWL a reaction to the rise of pan-Arab nationalism and specifically the start of the Yemeni civil war in the same year. In 2012 the WML was described as creeping Wahhabi colonialism by one analyst citing numerous moderate Muslim sources. 

1962 HSA Group forms Yemen’s first shipping company, Middle East Shipping Company Ltd in Al Hodeidah. This also shifts their assets from Aden to North Yemen,  just as the Nationalist indepence movement gain momentum. See 1969 / 1970 when, according to Hayel Saeed, all the group’s in Aden were confiscated by the ‘communists’. 

1969 Belgium gifted a 99-year lease of the Grand Mosque in Brussels to the Saudi Royal family, control of which was given to the Muslim World League. A discounted oil price to subsidise Belgium industry was negotiated at the same time as the signing of the lease. See 2018, when the lease was terminated because of persistant links to terrorism.

1970 A privately owned trading business called the Hayel Saeed Anam Group, established in the British protectorate of Aden in 1938, lost everything at the end of the Yemeni civil War. The war was between the pan-Arab nationalists of the south the Saudi backed religiously orientated north Yemen. The group re-established itself in Taiz, starting its business from scratch.

1976 The refurbished Grand Mosque of Brussels is inaugurated 

1977 HSA opens their London office, Longulf Trading

1984 HSA director is a founding signatory of MIGA, a Muslim Brotherhood linked Swiss shell company that was sanctioned by the UN and US Treasury in 2002 for links to al Qaeda

1985 CIA notes significant Arab funding to the Afghan mujaheedin cause was passed through Abdul Rasul Sayyaf and that he sythoned off significant funds to create his own insurgent militia.

1988 HSA subsiduary Pacific Interlink founded and headquartered in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

1988 The group now known as al Qaeda was formed

March 2018 In the wake of a wave of terrorist attacks across Europe, control of the Grand Mosque of Brussels was taken away from the MWL. The Belgium government took the extrodinary step of ending a 99-year lease of Mosque gifted to the Saudi royal family in 1969, stating:

“The concession will be terminated immediately ... in order to put an end to foreign interference in the way Islam is taught in Belgium."

"In this way we are tackling Salafist, violent extremist influences” 

The Grand Mosque is situated almost opposite the European Union parliament building in Brussells, yet was teaching and distributing extreme ideology including anti-semitism and the execution of homosexuals for decades.

Truly, for some of us nothing is written, unless we write it 
© Anthony C Heaford - The Quiet Mancunian